Effects of Children on Parental Sex-Role Orientation,

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Conventionally, social scientists examine how parents create gender roles for children from birth through adolescence. Lawrence Ganong and Marilyn Coleman have found that children can also affect their parents’ gender roles. They administered the Bem Sex Role Inventory to 306 parents (153 couples) who had daughters only (N = 41), sons only (N = 41), or an equal number of sons and daughters (N = 71).

Fathers with sons had lower “femininity” scores than fathers with daughters only. Mothers with sons were significantly more “feminine” than those who only had daughters. These results do not support the “common sense” expectation that socializing daughters would have a feminizing effect on parents and that socializing sons would have a masculinizing effect.

Ganong and Coleman contend that parents become more sex-typed (that is, fathers become more masculine than feminine and mothers more feminine than masculine). Parents seem to respond to sons by becoming clearer role models of masculinity and femininity. Daughters, on the other hand, have no such effect because there is relatively less concern for teaching them a rigid gender role. The study supports yet another interactionist dimension to gender roles, that the child-parent relationship is mutually influential. See Lawrence Ganong and Marilyn Coleman, “Effects of Children on Parental Sex-Role Orientation,” Journal of Family Issues 8 (September 1987): 278–290.

Respond to the article above written by Jon Witt with 200 words and respond to two other students’ posts with 100 words each.  Do you agree or disagree? What does the text tell you about gender roles?

Research topic related to juvenile delinquency

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In this assignment, you will select your research topic related to juvenile delinquency that will be used in Weeks 4 and 5 for this course, and then you will prepare an annotated bibliography. This topic will be used throughout the remainder of the course to fulfill the requirements of the study. The limit on serial references will be a maximum of 3. See below for further information.

What is an annotated bibliography?

This is a bibliography that includes brief explanations or notes for each reference. An annotated bibliography helps the researcher determine which sources are relevant to a line of inquiry.

Example:

Green, B. (2011). Criminal justice-what’s ahead? Roadblocks and new directions. Criminal justice, 25(4), 1-7. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.

This is where you would put a description of the article, discuss the author, mention the strengths and weaknesses of the topic, and mention any reviews if possible. This paragraph will be single-spaced.

Examples on topics to search:

  • Articles on juvenile delinquency and causes
  • Articles on theory that one can use for juveniles
  • Web pages for statistics.
  • Any peer reviewed article.

What are serial references?

Serial references are those that are over 10-years-old and that put forth a theory that has been deemed to be a foundation for other theories. Examples: Sutherland and differential association theory, Freud and psychoanalytical theory, or Pavlov and behavioral theory.

How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a list of references to books, articles, and documents. Each reference is followed by a brief description and analysis of the reference. The purpose of such a bibliography is to inform the reader of the importance, precision, and value of the reference in relation to the study being considered. This description should be between 100–150 words.

Annotations Versus Abstracts

Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they expose the author’s point of view, clarity, and appropriateness of expression and authority. Look for the following when making your evaluation:

  • The author’s credentials: Look at his or her employment, educational background, past articles, or books.
  • Date of publication: When was the source published? Is it less than 10 years? Is there another edition? Is the information dated? If so, look for a more current time frame. There are such things as serial references. These references are explained in the instructions above.
  • Published by a university press: It is more likely to be considered scholarly if it was published this way, but it does not guarantee that fact.
  • Reviews: Investigate to see if there are any reviews of the article or book.

Assignment Guidelines  4–6 pages (10–15 annotations)

  • First, search for books, periodicals, and related information to the topic of your study. Take your time to look them over and see what the authors are describing in their work, and then make a decision on which material would have the most impact upon your paper.
  • Select 10–15 sources that you will use for your annotated bibliography.
  • For each selected source, complete the following:
    • Make an APA reference for the material.
    • Write a brief description that summarizes the central theme of the material.
      • Evaluate the background of the author, comment on the intended audience, compare or contrast this work with other sources that you have referenced, and explain how this work relates to your topic.
  • All references should be in APA style.

How does your voice fit in the scholarly conversation? How can you revise and align your opinions to participate with the intellectual discussion of your fellow scholar-practitioners?

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Adding Your Evaluation

How does your voice fit in the scholarly conversation? How can you revise and align your opinions to participate with the intellectual discussion of your fellow scholar-practitioners?

For this Assignment, you will review the Learning Resources on sentence structure and audience. With the principles outlined in the Learning Resources in mind, it is time to join the conversation by adding your own evaluation of the three paragraphs you have written from the journal article you selected in Week 2.

To prepare for this Assignment:

·         Review the Learning Resources on audience, sentence structure, and, if necessary, the MEAL plan from Week 4.

·         Review the content of your selected journal article.

What do you think might have happened to society if a psychoanalytical theory was never formed? Explain.

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  • What do you think might have happened to society if a psychoanalytical theory was never formed? Explain.
    • How would society look at people who were abused, had schizophrenia, or had Tourette’s syndrome? Explain in detail.
  • What would happen in a future society if it were found that there were definite biological reasons for crimes being committed? Explain
    • What types of laws or regulations might be put in place regarding these definite biological factors? Explain.
    • How might these laws and regulations infringe on the civil liberties of those affected? Explain.

Theories related to crime causation:

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Select 5 of the following theories related to crime causation:

  • Biological
  • Psychoanalytical
  • Rational choice theory
  • Social disorganization theory
  • Strain theory
  • Differential association theory
  • Labeling theory
  • Feminist theory

Assignment Guidelines

  • Address the following in 4–6 pages:
    • Relate each of your 5 selected theories to these 6 questions:
      • How is the theory related to juvenile status offenders? Explain.
      • How is the theory related to violent adult offenders? Explain.
      • How is the theory related to criminal acts and juvenile delinquents?
      • How could a judge implement these theories in his or her courtroom?
      • How would these theories be utilized by adult probation or parole officers? Explain.
      • How would these theories be utilized by juvenile probation officers? Explain.
  • Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.

What Enlightenment principles does the petition invoke

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“Profile:  Nzinga Mbemba (Affonso I) of Kongo”

o   “Profile:  Olaudah Equiano”

o   “Profile:  Ayuba Suleiman Diallo of Bondu”

o   “Profile:  Anthony Johnson”

o   “Profile:  Elizabeth Freeman”

·        Read the profile carefully.

·        Write a brief review of the profile. Include the following elements:

o   A brief summary of the profile [1 paragraph]

o   A brief discussion addressing the following question: What does the individual’s life story teach us about the time period in which he or she lived? [1 to 2 paragraphs]

o   A brief discussion addressing the following questions: What aspects of the individual’s life story speak to you? Is there a moral to the story that might be relevant to modern society? [1 paragraph]

·        Your review should be approximately 225 words long (225 words=approximately 1 page, double spaced).

·        Include your name and the title of the profile. Cite all quotes.

Read Chapters 1- 5 and pay particular attention to the section called “VOICES: Boston Slaves Link Their Freedom to American Liberty” in Chapter 4. Once all reading is complete, respond to the following:

·        What is the object of this petition?

·        What Enlightenment principles does the petition invoke?

·        What is the significance of the slaves’ vow to go to Africa if freed?

You are required to submit an initial posting that addresses the items above. You are also expected to respond to the posting of at least one other student. Your response should address why you agree/disagree with their posting.

Required Text Book: Hine, D., Hine, W., & Harrold, S. The African-American Odyssey 6th edition

Define the negotiation you planned. Who is your competitor? Who has the “upper hand” in this deal and why?

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Negotiation Project

Throughout the course, you have debated and discussed the subject of negotiations, and you have also assisted a fellow student on a conflict resolution project. In Week 3, you were specifically asked to find something you can negotiate, and take notes on the negotiation. Hopefully, by this week you have not only identified the subject of your negotiation but have gathered pertinent information to assist you in the negotiation process.  As you recall, some suggested negotiation topics were:

1. Trying to buy a car (you don’t have to do the deal). 2. Trying to get a better deal on your cell phone, internet, or cable TV package. 3. Trying to negotiate a raise from your employer, especially when the employee does not have adequate resources to provide a raise. 4. Trying to purchase a new piece of jewelry from a jewelry store, one not known to negotiate its prices.5. Any negotiation you really are experiencing during the term (i.e. promotion, new job terms, etc.).

Before doing the negotiation, you needed to do these things, and take written notes for each item.

1. Define the negotiation you planned. Who is your competitor? Who has the “upper hand” in this deal and why? 2. Describe your goal of the negotiation. 3. Define your BATNA of the negotiation. 4. Review the 10 Best Practices of Negotiations in Chapter 12. Select at least three best practices that you plan to use in this negotiation.

Do the negotiation, and describe:

  1. Who made the first offer?
  2. How was it communicated?
  3. What was the response?
  4. Was there a counteroffer? Describe all counteroffers.
  5. Did you communicate your BATNA to your opponent? Why or why not? Did this seem to work?
  6. Did your opponent communicate his or her BATNA to you? Why or why not? Did this seem to help the negotiation?
  7. Which of the 10 Best Practices of Negotiations in Chapter 12 did you actually use? Was this different from your plan? If so, what happened that caused you to change?
  8. What was the final result of your negotiation?
  9. What did you learn from this about negotiating?

Use at least three resources/references. Write your notes up into a report about the negotiation, which includes all of the information requested.

This is due on Day 7 of Week 8. It will likely be between 3-5 pages.

Cost-Allocation Methods academic essay

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PERU21

 Discussion—Cost-Allocation Methods

According to Zelman, McCue, Glick, and Thomas (2014), activity-based costing (ABC) requires increased attention as compared to traditional, top-down cost-allocation methods. The assumption for ABC is that activities consume resources and products consume activities. Equally, the assumption is that if you can control activities or processes, then you can also control costs. The supposition is that if you can measure the resources an activity consumes, then you can provide a more accurate picture of costs as compared to the traditional, top-down cost-allocation method (Zelman et al., 2014).

In this assignment, you will compare and contrast traditional, top-down cost allocation and the ABC methodology. Using the module readings, Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, respond to the following:

  • Describe traditional cost allocation.
  • Discuss costing terminology (direct costs and indirect costs) and cost drivers.
  • Identify the steps in ABC.
  • Discuss the differences between the ABC method and traditional cost allocation. What are the pros and cons of both ABC and traditional cost allocation?
  • In your opinion, is the ABC method better than traditional cost-allocation methods? Why or why not?

Give reasons to support your statements.

Write your initial response in approximately 300–500 words. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

Zelman, W. N., McCue, M. J., Glick, N. D., & Thomas, M. (2014). Financial management of health care organizations (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Revolution in Egypt academic essay

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Case Study 1: Revolution in Egypt

With 83 million people, Egypt is the most populous Arab state. On the face of it, Egypt made significant economic progress during the 2000s. In 2004, the government of Hosni Mubarak enacted a series of economic reforms that included trade liberalization, cuts in import tariffs, tax cuts, deregulation, and changes in investment regulations that allowed for more foreign direct investment in the Egyptian economy. As a consequence, economic growth, which had been in the 2 to 4 percent range during the early 2000s, accelerated to around 7 percent a year. Exports almost tripled, from $9 billion in 2004 to more than $25 billion by 2010. Foreign direct investment increased from $4 billion in 2004 to $11 billion in 2008, while unemployment fell from 11 percent to 8 percent.

By 2008, Egypt seemed to be displaying many of the features of other emerging economies. On Cairo’s outskirts, clusters of construction cranes could be seen where gleaming new offices were being built for companies such as Microsoft, Oracle, and Vodafone. Highways were being constructed, hypermarkets were opening their doors, and sales of private cars quadrupled between 2004 and 2008. Things seemed to be improving.

But appearances can be deceiving. Underneath the surface, Egypt had major economic and political problems. Inflation, long a concern, remained high at 12.8 percent. As the global economic crisis took hold in 2008–2009, Egypt saw many of its growth drivers slow. In 2008, tourism brought some $11 billion into the country, accounting for 8.5 percent of gross domestic product, but it fell sharply in 2009 and 2010. Remittances from Egyptian expatriates working overseas, which amounted to $8.5 billion in 2008, declined sharply as construction projects in the Gulf, where many of them worked, were cut back or shut down. Earnings from the Suez Canal, which stood at $5.2 billion in 2008, declined by 25 percent in 2009 as the volume of world shipping slumped in the wake of the global economic slowdown.

Moreover, Egypt remained a country with a tremendous gap between the rich and the poor. Some 44 percent of Egyptians are classified as poor or extremely poor; the average wage is less than $100 a month. Some 2.6 million people are so destitute that their entire income cannot cover their basic food needs.

The gap between rich and poor, when coupled with a sharp economic slowdown, became a toxic mix. Nominally a stable democracy with a secular government, Egypt was, in fact, an autocratic state. By 2011, President Hosni Mubarak had been in power for more than a quarter of a century. The government was highly corrupt. Mubarak and his family reportedly amassed personal fortunes amounting to billions of U.S. dollars, most of which were banked outside Egypt. Although elections were held, they were hardly free and fair. Opposition parties were kept in check by constant police harassment, their leaders often jailed on trumped-up charges.

Given all of this, it is perhaps not surprising that in January 2011, popular discontent spilled over into the streets. Led by technologically savvy young Egyptians—who harnessed the power of the Internet and social network media such as Facebook and Twitter to organize mass demonstrations—hundreds of thousands of Egyptians poured into Cairo’s Tahrir Square and demanded the resignation of the Mubarak government. There they stayed, their numbers only growing over time. For weeks, Mubarak refused to step down, while the demonstrations gained momentum and Egypt’s powerful military establishment stood on the sidelines. Foreign governments, including the Obama administration in the United States, long one of Egypt’s most important Western allies, joined the chorus of voices calling for Mubarak to resign. In the end, his position became untenable, and he stepped down on February 11, 2011. The Egyptian military took the reins of power, vowing to do so for a short time while it organized a transition to democratic elections in the fall of 2011. In March 2011, Egyptians voted on a set of proposed constitutional amendments designed to pave the way for the elections in late 2011. This was the first time in six decades that Egyptians had been offered a free choice on any public issues.

Does this mean that Egypt is now on the road to becoming a democratic state with a vibrant economy? That is still far from clear. In mid-2012, moderate Islamists from the Muslim Brotherhood won the most seats in the country’s first democratic election, and the Brotherhood candidate Mohamed Morsi won the presidential election. However, the Morsi government struggled. By 2013, the economy was in deep trouble. Unemployment was as high as 20 percent, the Egyptian currency was steadily losing value on foreign exchange markets, and inflation was increasing again. Tourism, which previously had accounted for 8 to 12 percent of GDP, evaporated. Foreign investment stalled, and the country’s foreign reserves were falling fast. Meanwhile, the Morsi government failed to enact any meaningful economic reforms. It was unwilling to remove politically popular food and fuel subsidies totaling $20 billion a year, even though the country clearly could not afford to pay for them. Government debt was increasing, and the annual budget deficit now accounted for more than 12 percent of GDP. Many successful businesspeople left the country, fearing reprisals for their role under the Mubarak regime. Court rulings overturned privatization deals from more than a decade ago, effectively moving several enterprises back into state hands. In June 2013, protestors again took to the streets, and with the backing of the still powerful Egyptian military, Morsi was removed from office in early July 2013. As of early 2014, an “interim” government is now running the country, although in Egypt, unelected interim regimes have a history of becoming permanent authoritarian governments.

 

Questions

  • What were the underlying causes, economic and political, of the collapse of the Mubarak regime?

 

  • What do you think the Egyptian government needs to do in order to get the economy growing again and to attract foreign capital? What are the risks to the government of taking such actions?

 

  • What dangers do you see in the current trajectory of the Egyptian economy? What are the implications of these dangers for foreign companies that might consider doing business in Egypt? What do you think it would take to encourage more foreigners to visit, invest, and do business in Egypt? Would such inward investment be good for the Egyptian economy?

 

  • Political risks in Egypt seem to be increasing again, and the country seems to be retreating from democracy, largely due to intervention by the military. As a manager in an international business, how would the current turmoil and political uncertainty in Egypt influence your investment decisions, and what does this mean for the future of the Egyptian economy?

 

 

Case Study 2: Ghana: An African Dynamo

The West African nation of Ghana has emerged as one of the fastest-growing countries in sub-Saharan Africa during the last decade. Between 2000 and 2013, Ghana’s average annual growth rate in GDP was over 7.5 percent, making it the fastest-growing economy in Africa. In 2011, this country of 25 million people became Africa’s newest middle-income nation. Driving this growth has been strong demand for two of Ghana’s major exports—gold and cocoa—as well as the start of oil production in 2010. Indeed, due to recent oil discoveries, Ghana is set to become one of the biggest oil producers in sub-Saharan Africa, a fact that could fuel strong economic expansion for years to come.

It wasn’t always this way. Originally a British colony, Ghana gained independence in 1957. For the next three decades, the country suffered from a long series of military coups that killed any hope for stable democratic government. Successive governments adopted a socialist ideology, often as a reaction to their colonial past. As a result, large portions of the Ghana economy were dominated by state-owned enterprises. Corruption was rampant and inflation often a problem, while the country’s dependence on cash crops for foreign currency earnings made it vulnerable to swings in commodity prices. It seemed like yet another failed state.

In 1981, an air force officer, Jerry Rawlings, led a military coup that deposed the president and put Rawlings in power. Rawlings started a vigorous anticorruption drive that made him very popular among ordinary Ghanaians. Rawlings initially pursued socialist policies and banned political parties, but in the early 1990s, he changed his views. He may well have been influenced by the wave of democratic change and economic liberalization that was then sweeping the formally communist states of eastern Europe. In addition, he was pressured by Western governments and the International Monetary Fund to embrace democratic reforms and economic liberalization policies (the IMF was lending money to Ghana).

Presidential elections were held in 1992. Prior to the elections, the ban on political parties was lifted, restrictions on the press were removed, and all parties were given equal access to the media. Rawlings won the election, which foreign observers declared to be “free and fair.” Ghana has had a functioning democratic system since then. Rawlings won again in 1996 and retired in 2001. Beginning in 1992, Rawlings started to liberalize the economy, privatizing state-owned enterprises, instituting market-based reforms, and opening Ghana up to foreign investors. Over the next decade, more than 300 state-owned enterprises were privatized, and the new, largely privately held economy was booming.

Following the discovery of oil in 2007, Ghana’s politicians studied oil revenue laws from other countries, including Norway and Trinidad. They put in place laws designed to limit the ability of corrupt officials to siphon off oil revenues from royalties to enrich themselves; something that has been a big problem in oil-rich Nigeria. Some oil revenues are slated to go directly into the national budget, while the rest will be split between a “stabilization fund” to support the budget should oil prices drop and a “heritage fund” to be spent only when the oil starts to run out.

Despite all of its progress over the last two decades, Ghana still has many issues to deal with. Although Ghana ranks better than most African nations, there is still a perception that corruption is a problem, particularly in the police force and the allocation of government contracts. Inflation rose to greater than 13 percent in 2013, and the budget deficit widened to 12 percent of GDP as the ruling political party stepped up public spending in advance of presidential and general elections, which it narrowly won. Despite economic progress, as many as a third of Ghanaians still live on less than $2 a day, and Ghana still needs to upgrade its power, water, and road infrastructure. On the other hand, oil revenue is starting to flow, and will increase over time, which—if used wisely—will give Ghana a chance to fix some of its problems and solidify its gains

Questions

  • After gaining independence from Britain, Ghana’s economy languished for three decades. What factors contributed to this weak economic growth? What does the Ghana experience teach you about the connection between economic and political systems and economic growth?
  • What were the main changes that Jerry Rawlings made in the Ghanaian political and economic systems? What were the consequences of these changes? What are the lessons here?
  • What external forces helped to persuade Rawlings to change political and economic practices in Ghana? Do you think he would have made the changes he did without these external forces?
  • If Ghana had discovered large oil reserves in the 1980s instead of the 2000s, do you think things might have played out differently? Why or why not?
  • What is the difference between the approach of Nigeria toward oil revenues and that of Ghana (the Nigeria experience is documented in the country focus feature in this chapter)? Which approach is in the best long-run interests of the country?
  • What dies Ghana need to do to remain on its current track of sustained economic growth?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case Study 3: Walmart can’t conquer all Countries

Questions:

  1. Why do you think that Germany, South Korea, Russia, and India were attractive markets for Walmart? Should Walmart spend more time on one or a few of these markets to be successful?
  2. Recently, Walmart is trying to engage some of these market, and other, via joint ventures or mergers and acquisitions; is this an appropriate strategy given Walmart’s historical problems in cultural differences?

Some companies like IKEA (which is very Swedish in management operations) can succeed by being culturally tied to their home country even in international operations. Why do you think

Develop an IT strategy that aligns to the business goals

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IT STRATEGIC PLANNING

Assignment 2: Required Assignment 2—IT Strategic Planning

Using a company of your choice, determine the strategic business goals. Develop an IT strategy that aligns to the business goals. You can use the balanced scorecard approach or you can develop your own method for defining and aligning the IT strategy to the business strategy. You will need to cite at least two credible sources that will provide justification for your strategy or approach.

Finding a company: If you are employed, it is best for you to use your current place of employment so you can practically apply the concepts in this assignment. Alternatively, you can use a nonprofit organization or any other organization you may have ties or access to.

Your IT strategy should include:

  • Business Goals and Objectives
    • List at least two or three specific business goals for the next year or two with an explanation of the business’ rationale for the goal.
    • List an objective for each business goal to explain what the company needs to do to achieve the goal.
  • IT Strategies aligned with business goals and objectives
    • List one or two IT strategies for each business goal
      • These should be recommended strategies that would enable the business goals and objectives to be achieved.
      • If your company already has IT strategies, you may provide an analysis and justification or new recommendation for each of the strategies
  • Organizational Structure
    • Describe the structure of the organization including:
      • Organizational design
      • Organizational culture
      • Leadership factors (the types of leadership displayed within the company)
      • Business processes
      • Physical layout (i.e., how many offices, virtual offices, international locations)
  • IT Infrastructure
    • Describe the current IT infrastructure including:
      • Hardware
      • Software
      • Network
      • IT resources
    • This should be a high-level overview
  • IT Challenges
    • Describe internal and external challenges IT faces in meeting the business needs
    • Include social and/or ethical considerations
  • Risks
    • Describe risks IT might face when implementing change

As you develop your strategy, you may want to consider the following:

  • An effective IT strategy will enable the business operations, helping business leaders achieve business goals more efficiently and effectively.
  • Focus on top priorities. Take the time to understand organizational issues, how they are related, and how they affect performance. Determine what will happen if nothing changes and where IT can have the greatest, positive impact.
  • Identify how IT supports business processes. The business is relying on their capabilities to achieve the business goals. The IT strategy should include a plan for supporting those business capabilities, creating efficiencies, and competitive advantage for the business.
  • Define IT priorities and governance for IT. Without priorities and a process for IT governance in place, progress will be slowed. An agreed upon plan for governing IT will enable the decision process.

Understand the challenges. Improving processes and increasing efficiencies through IT implementation also requires behavioral and sometimes organizational change. With these changes come inherent challenges. Understanding and planning for those challenges will increase the chance of success in meeting the business goals.

Write an 8–12-page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M5_A2.doc.

By Wednesday, July 5, 2017, deliver your assignment to the M5: Assignment 2 Dropbox.