I need solely a literature review . The aim of the my thesis is to investigate the effect of ‘love’ as a priming stimulus on helping behaviours and gender differences
of confederates and participants in the giving and receiving of this help.
Preliminary hypothesis will be as follows:
1.Positive priming of stimuli associated with the word‘love’ will lead to more helping behaviours.
2. Females are more likely to engage in helping behaviours.
3. Female confederates will receive more help than male confederates.
Attached below is the background information on my study and roughly what the literature review should cover. Please put in additional information deemed necessary.
There are a number of factors that contribute to why people help. These factors range from age, gender
, education, income and religion (Shariff & Norenzayan, 2007).The overall mood and emotion that an
individual holds, the presence of bystanders (Abbate, Ruggieri & Boca, 2013), the ambiguity of the situation, interpersonal similarity, and reciprocity (Trivers, 1971)
can also affect one’s help behaviour. Priming is also said to influence helping behaviours in different ways. In a particular study which focused
on the influence of priming and bystander apathy on helping behaviour, help was found to be more
prominent in a prosocial-prime condition than in a neutral-prime condition (Abbate, Ruggieri & Boca,
2013). Another study found that participants who were primed with ‘empathy’ stimuli were more likely to
help than those who were neutrally primed (Velasquez, 2011). Priming of the word ‘love’ was also found
to induce more helping behaviours as compared to the priming of negative emotional words (Lamy,
Fischer-Lokou, & Guéguen, 2009). In addition, Guéguen, Jacob, and Charles-Sires’ (20
11) study showed that ‘love’ priming increased donations in a fund-raising context. Another experiment by Fischer-Lokou,Lamy and Guéguen (2009) demonstrated that a
higher likelihood to help after random individuals on the street were asked to evoke a memory involving love. Another factor that affects helping behaviour is gender.
Females in general demonstrate to be more empathetic or sympathetic than men (Hoffman, 1977) and are known to offer more helping behaviour (Gilligan, 1982). Females
have an orientation towards being caring and responsible (Gilligan, 1982),where their consideration for others triggers their altruism (Piliavin & Unger, 1985).
Furthermore, females generally have a higher likelihood to receive help, especially from males (Bryan & Test, 1967; Gaertner & Bickman, 1971; Pomazal & Clore, 1973;
Simon, 1971), particularly chivalrous help. The chivalric code demands that men direct their courteous and protective acts towards females because they are ‘weak’
(Braverman et al., 1972).When experimenter and confederates were females, they were more likely to receive help (Christopher et al., 2006).This study looks at how
‘love’ priming can influence a person’s helping behaviour as well as how gender can play a part both in the receiving and the giving of help. This study is beneficial
because it looks at processes (priming and helping behaviour) that occur in our daily lives and the impact it has on our actions (Fischer-Lokou, Lamy & Gueguen, 2009)
in a positive manner. This study can provide further insight on the extensive research that has been done on priming of positive emotional stimuli. In addition, it is
useful to try to understand gender differences in the giving and receiving of help as this can help society to understand the helping behaviour of males and females
and possibly, how and why they differ.