1- What physical and behavioral adaptations and innovations characterized human evolution?
2- In the absence of written sources, what have scholar learned about the Paleolithic economy, adaptations to the natural world, and technological innovations?
3- In what ways does the Neolithic agricultural economy reveal humans’ increasing intent and ability to manipulate the natural world to their advantage?
4- Why did Australian aborigines, in contrast to many of the world’s other peoples, choose not to farm?
1- How do historians explain the rise of cities?
2- How and why did the rise of the city lead to more hierarchical society in early Mesopotamia?
3- Why did ancient peoples develop writing systems, and what has been the enduring impact of this invention on intellectual expression?
4- What were the main features of the first international order, and what developments explain its rise and fall?
5- In what ways did the early history of Egypt contrast with that of the ancient states of Southwest Asia?
1- How did Egyptians and Nubians interact in the two imperial periods that united them politically?
2- What kind of power structure did the Assyrians impose on their subjects, and how did it lead to cultural assimilation in the empire?
3- What imperial vision and style of the government marked the rise of the vast Persian Empire and allowed it to endure for more than two hundred years?
4- To what degree and in what ways did the peoples of Israel and Judah accept or reject the influences of the empires they confronted?
1- What significant political and cultural developments emerged in Greece in the early first millennium B.C.E?
2- What cultural innovations appeared in Greece during its Classical age?
3- How did Hellenism affect the peoples of Greece, North Africa, and Southwest Asia?
4- How did the lives and livelihoods of the peoples of Atlantic Europe differ from those of the Mediterranean peoples?
1- How did the new religious ideas of the last centuries B.C.E. suit the social and political structures of India?
2- How did the geographical location and trade relations of the Kushan Empire affect its cultural traditions?
3- How did the early Chinese philosophers come to have a long-lasting influence on the intellectual development of the region?
4- How did southern Indians developments differ from those in other parts of Asia?